Some of the major components of biodiversity are as follows:
i. Ecosystem Diversity
ii. Species Diversity
iii. Genetic Diversity.
Man, Homo sapiens, is the product of bio-diversification. Biodiversity is intimately related to the function and stability of communities and ecosystems. It is of vital importance to humankind from many points of view. It is of economic importance, as it provides the basic material for food, clothing, medicines, housing and major industries such as tourism.
It plays a vital role in the pollination of our fruit and cereal crops. It is of scientific importance for protecting and maintaining soils, regulating climate and ensuring photosynthesis. It has intangible values also as shown by the way in which nature inspires painters, poets, and musicians. Many people feel that the variety of living things adds to the quality of life.
Biodiversity refers to the variety and variability among living organisms and ecological compliances in which they occur. Major components in biodiversity are ecosystem diversity, species diversity and genetic diversity.
It relates to variety of habitats, biotic communities and ecological processes in the biosphere, and is considered as complex level of diversity.
ii. Species Diversity:
iii. Genetic Diversity:
Refers to total genetic information contained in the genes of individuals of plants, animals and microorganisms. Genetic diversity is comparatively less obvious level of diversity as it represents variations within species.
Species diversity is a most common form of diversity as it refers to two different groups of organisms or species. Ecosystem diversity is a complex one and it refers to assemblages of the various forms of diversity in two different ecosystems.